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Ethics in billboard advertising: the role of ethical considerations in management decisions by Lu, Andrew James ... [et al.]. by
Call Number: TU14767
Publication Date: 2011
Given the current situation of the billboard advertising industry in the Philippines, the researchers looked into ethical considerations in management decisions when it came to approving and implementing potentially offensive billboard advertisements. This study focused on identifying the factors that contributed to the decision making process of management together with the role of ethics in their decisions. The researchers interviewed the marketing managers or other people in position of seven choice companies to gather data regarding the advertising process when it came to billboard advertisements and the ethical considerations that accompanied it. It was found that most, if not all, companies followed the guidelines in the codes of ethics by private media organizations, but were still found to be offensive. This showed that there were several other factors that contributed or caused viewers to see certain advertisements as offensive enough to push companies to take them down. Further research upon these factors took place to fully grasp the reason for these happenings.
Pakikipagkapwa from the perspective of persons with disabilities in the community by
Call Number: TU21481
Publication Date: 2016
Despite pakikipagkapwa being the core concept of Sikolohiyang Pilipino, there is very little research that grapples with such concept - even more so in the context of PWD. This study then explores pakikipagkapwa through the perspective of PWD. A qualitative approach was used in which data was obtained through the indigenous method of pakikipagkwentuhan. The results were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis. The building of a secure attachment bond and pagkapantay-pantay were found to be the core concepts of pakikipagkapwa among PWD in a community. In accordance with that, relating to another person socially and achieving mutual respect were established as the peripheral concepts. Following that, the core manifestations of pakikipagkapwa in their interactions in the community come in the form of following the principle of pagsasayaw sa tugtog, reciprocity of action and pakikisangkot. Pakikiramdam and helping one another come hand in hand with that as the peripheral manifestations. Lastly, pagkakaroon ng taong laging matatakbuhan and pagkakaisa were found to be the outcomes of pakikipagkapwa on their sociability in communal terms. In terms of self relation, an improved self-esteem was found to be the outcome.
The Correlation of CSR and moral management in the next 5000 companies of Metro Manila by
Call Number: TU15172
Publication Date: 2010
With the use of statistical tests, namely Goodman and Kruskal's Gamma, Kendall's Tau-B, and Fisher's Exact Test, the group analyzed the results of from their surveyed companies from the Next 5000 Corporations regarding their Moral Management and Corporate Social Responsibility Practices to find a correlation between the two. This research does not aim to generalize anything for corporations in the Philippines, but it does compare and contrast the CSR Practices of Manufacturing and Non-manufacturing organizations. The study covers corporations from different industries situated in the National Capital Region of the Republic of the Philippines. The research is basically find out if there is a correlation between Archie Caroll's levels of CSR namely economic, social, legal and philanthropic and moral management pertaining to the various stakeholders of a company.
The group found out that majority of the surveyed companies, both manufacturing and non-manufacturing, prioritize economic the most and philanthropic the least. In terms of moral management, both manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies got high scores in the owners and suppliers and dealers stakeholder. For differences, manufacturing companies also have high scores in the financier stakeholders while non-manufacturing companies scored high on the customers and community and government stakeholder groups.
Care ethics and Florence Nightingales care practices [electronic resource] : a historical-materialist and praxis-driven analysis by
Call Number: CDTG005921
Publication Date: 2015
This study is a retrieval of resources for Care Ethics reflection. It gathers, assembles, and critically examines Florence Nightingales character development, social involvements and her brand of care ethics embedded in her care praxis and writings as these breached the obvious limitations of the brand of care ethics formulated by present-day feminists. By her emancipatory/feminine-voice perspective, historical-materialist praxis, and social health reforms, she was able to concretize care one that is founded on her faith in a God who regenerates.
This work is an analysis of the previously unexplored facets of care ethics and Florence Nightingales care practices and writings. It deploys Reinhart Kosellecks framework in evaluating Nightingales emancipatory perspective, sense-felt practices and far-reaching reforms.
The use of Kosellecks conceptual history, which has been employed as a method, assists this research in data gathering, organizing themes, and analyzing complex and dense materials. His concepts of space of experience and horizon of expectation serve the purpose of retrieval and thus, have kept a cohesive view of Nightingales formation and social involvement.
This historical analysis mainly functions as an aid 1) to probe into the socio-cultural mores of Nightingales time and thus 2) pave the way towards an accounting of the constant substantive themes specific to a process of ethical reflection: character formation, ethical action (praxis), effects/consequences of character development/behavioral change to relationships, and the determination of the moral good. This initial process of analysis in aid of ethical reflection will further serve to examine Nightingales brand of theological ethics. Thus, making this study akin to the critical reflection of historical praxis common to liberationist ethical reflections of liberation theology. This study does, in fact, show that Care Ethics formulation is more infused with form and substance if it will be an ethics that is built on conditions of possibilities for character formation, action, and social transformationfactors rich in Nightingales case. The historical account prepares for the retrieval of ethical principles explicitly and implicitly present both in historical, personal/practical, and documentary evidences studied in this present study which claims that formulations of ethics of care should not only explain oppressive situations but also deal with it through praxis.
The hermeneutical analysis (using Biblical scenarios of Jesus healing ministry, the concept of orthopodeo in Galatians, the faith-works in James, and the parable of the Good Samaritan verifies the theological quality of her caring works and reforms. The face of God in Jesus Caring is an attempt to offer the challenge of following a caring Jesus and fulfil the mandate of loving God and neighbor.
The foregoing analyses yield the identification of norms relevant to the present time and context. Moreover, her practices of care can be transposed to settings and systems where Nightingales horizons of expectations find application.
Doing right for patienst : a grounded theory on physicians' understanding and negotiation of ethical dilemmas by
Call Number: CDTG005331
Publication Date: 2013
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how Philippine medical practitioners perceive and negotiate ethical dilemmas they encounter in the course of their clinical practice. The study used the grounded theory method of Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Strauss and Corbin (1990) with in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand the lived experiences of twenty eight (28) participants whose age ranged from 27-70 years. After open coding of transcripts of interviews, axial coding and selective coding of emerged concepts, six distinct yet related categories were identified namely a.) the nature of an ethical dilemma, b.) causal conditions triggering the dilemmas, c.) contextual conditions of the ethical challenges, d.) intervening conditions affecting the negotiation of the dilemmas, e.) action/ strategies in resolving the dilemmas and f.) outcome/consequences of the decision on these ethical challenges. The core category of Doing Right for Patients was identified as the central theory that emerged. The study revealed that the processes could serve as a grounded typology in which physician participants gain a better hold of how they live, grasp, and deal with their decision-making regarding ethical dilemmas and what it means to do right for patients. The results of this study suggest that an understanding of the perceptions and negotiations of ethical dilemmas among physicians may lead to recognition and greater comprehension of their leadership role among other healthcare providers in the healthcare organizations. It also pointed to development of new models of medical ethics education that is more attuned to culture and context of Philippine society. Likewise, there is clear implication for educational leaders to seriously consider the inclusion of leadership-management courses in the medical curriculum.
Guilty as charged : a study of sexual guilt as a mediator in the relationship of sexual ideology and sexual behavior by
Call Number: TU14371
Publication Date: 2008
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of sex guilt on the relationship between sexual ideology and sexual behavior. The Sexual Attitude Scale, Mosher Guilt Inventory and Human Sexuality Questionnaire were administered to 351 Filipino young adults, comprised of students and non-students from six different locations by non-probability convenience sampling. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, simple linear regression and multiple regression. Results showed that Filipino young adults remain conservative in their sex ideology and sexual behavior, and are also high on sex guilt. Additionally, findings proved that sex guilt is a mediator in the relationship of sexual ideology and sexual behavior of Filipino young adults, applying full mediation effects. These resulting effects were used to determine implications and contributions to the Philippine society at present, including its impact on Filipino psychology, institutional campaigns and government programs.
Man's pursuit of happiness : the positive aspect of vices. by
Call Number: TU08330
Publication Date: 1997
The use of vices, namely smoking and drinking, has been incorporated into our society. It has become a social norm among many that vices are entirely bad for the individual person but the question remains: Why do many people start and still continue to smoke and drink amidst the nature and effects of vices on our health? Smokers and drinkers admittedly have their reasons regarding their vices. The use of vices seems to be an everyday fact. These are habits which some, if not all, people find pleasurable and, at times, necessary. Vices serve some definite and significant purpose in the lives of many people. The traditional or common view shall be discussed in the light of Christian and Aristotelian ethics. Religion has been a part of our culture and upbringing. It has shaped our attitude towards life and our values in viewing certain things. In our case, Christianity has subjected us to particular views, which, more often than not, have become moral issues. With regard to vices, we were oriented on its negative view and as we live this life, we have accepted them as such. However, many still smoke and drink amidst what Christianity tells us on what is good or bad. Aristotle is known for his Nichomachean ethics. The form of ethics that he purports is basically grounded on practical knowledge. One should know what is good or bad and, at the same time, behave in such manner. However, if one does not have this ability, the person is deemed to be morally imperfect. In the words of Aristotle, he or she is not living a virtuous life. In the case of vices, Aristotle asserts that the form of pleasure acquired from these habits is bad. The positive view shall be explained vis-a-vis the doctrines of Hedonism, Utilitarianism and Pragmatism. Hedonists advocate that pleasure is desirable and good in itself. The end of life is pleasure. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, the proponents of Utilitarianism, concern themselves with the ultimate end of life which is happiness. As long as the person is benefiting from his or her vices, the same can be considered as good. William James, a pragmatist by heart, asserts that the negativeness of vices depends entirely upon the person. If this is the case, vices can be perceived or accepted as positive because the individual deems smoking and drinking as good for him or her. There is a need to find a philosophical basis on why people smoke and drink. The dialectical method of reasoning shall be used in discussing the topic. The negative view shall be the thesis while the positive view shall be the antithesis. The former shall not be given that much importance since it is already known to almost all people. What is deemed relevant to the paper is the positive view. A point of realization and, hopefully, an acceptance shall be reached after thoroughly discussing the topic that vices are not entirely bad for a person after all.
"Legislating political dynasties from bottom to top : a comprehensive proposed law to enable the strict implementation of the constitutional prohibition on political dynasty to strip-off reign of terror in Philippine political system" by
Call Number: TG06981
Publication Date: 2017
Political dynasty has long been present in the Philippines' political history, dating its roots from pre-colonial era. It continues to raise concern as it spawns inequality among the elective positions in the country. Over the years, it continues to be the prevailing problem not only in rural areas but also in urban areas. As such, it has great impact in the socio-political and economic aspect of the society. This is compounded with the problems of graft and corruption.
Despite the provision in the 1987 Constitution particularly Article II, Section 26 of the 1987 Constitution which states: "The state shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law."
No bills have been passed into law.
In line with the aforementioned constitutional provision, the researchers aim to propose a comprehensive law with strict and rigid standards in order to eradicate political dynasty in the Philippines and to postulate a definite legal meaning of the term "political dynasty".
Filipino ethics : a study of philosophy for children through their literature. by
Publication Date: 1994
Philosophy for the Filipinos is a practical philosophy. It is primarily a philosophy towards one's self, other-self (family and society) and even the world. Attitudes, beliefs, thoughts and perceptions in those things make up the Filipino Welstanchauung.The Filipino philosophy had evolved through time and involves the Filipino masses. The children can also be included as part of the Filipino body. But to allow them to understand a philosophy and life seems an unreachable goal. Though its significance is vital to the children because they are beings onward to becoming. They need to see and look through life by knowing how their blood relative had lived their lives. Philosophy even as it is a practical for the Filipinos will be hard to teach to children because they have constraints in words and experiences. The means seem practicable and adaptable to children is through stories. It is in this that philosophy can be incorporated conforming to the playful and curious thinking of the children.In encapsulating the general Filipino thought in children's literature can be attained by employing concrete actions, situations, and possible happenings in the story. The stories can be in a form of metaphor or analogy that make use of familiar objects and words suitable for the children. What to contain in the plot is governed by the function of the writer by setting the characters, sequencing the events, and maintaining unity of the story to show a complete picture of an action or even just a parcel of life. It is in this manner that the story is able to extend
from a general picture to a particular yet remained as a complete picture of life and living. The universal concept of batas ng panunumbalik, cyclic view of life, the notion of life and death, the virtue of self-control and balance of nature have been found in the children's stories.Philosophy then is a statement about life. It is a collection of our understanding about living with nature, society and with one's individuality. These philosophical themes of batas panunumbalik, balance of nature, cyclic view of life, simulaing pangkatimpian and view of life and death make up the part of the crust of our Filipino philosophy. By means of literature, these Filipino philosophies were brought closer to living as they were described in particular and practical way. They were incorporated in the plot by the writer by elaborating in concrete terms and making a complete story as how life can be pictured. The above mentioned general concepts are the broken down into pieces so that it can reach the understanding of anyone even the children. Though children themselves have limitations, in so far as digesting the realities of life and understanding a particular view, it is however significant to show and mirror what could influence their becoming. This confirms our claim that children's literature can be a vehicle to teach children a philosophy.
Assessing students views and perspectives on spiritual and moral issues towards a Christian formation program for OP-Siena Schools by
Call Number: CDTG006895
Publication Date: 2016
The study examined the views and perspectives of the OP-Siena Grade seven to Grade ten students pertaining to spiritual and moral issues . It used the OP-Siena Core Values Passion for Truth and Compassion for Humanity. The overarching values are Truth and Compassion These two values were cascaded in the Congregational Priorities of Contemplation, Communion, Compassion and Creation. The number of young respondents (N = 1,216) became the subjects of the study. The study made used the descriptive method of having researcher made survey questionnaire. The quantitative approach was to analyze the data utilizing mean, standard deviation, frequencies, the Mann Whitney U Test and the Kruskal-Wallis . The study showed whether there would be significant differences of the different grade levels in dealing with the congregational priorities in relation to the respondents profile namely gender, parents marital status, parental presence and students companion at home.
Findings show that there were areas in the congregational priorities which have not be affected by the genders profile but there were also being affected. Through the survey questionnaire, the spiritual and moral needs were being identified. This led to the design of a Christian Formation Program. The Christian Formation Program provides a continuing formation and education with the view of supplying or improving the religious instruction. Topics /Modules to be given were based on the response of the OP-Siena School System to the identified spiritual, intellectual, moral and formation needs of the young people. Likewise to achieve the mission-vision of the Educational Ministry, topics \ modules as well as possible program activities are to be given to the young people of the Dominican Sienan institutions. The Christian Formation Program caters to the spiritual, moral, intellectual needs of the body. The OP-Siena Youth Christian Formation Program helps those who follow Christ to walk and live in Gods grace. It helps those who follow Christ to walk and live with God. It helps also those to live in the presence of God as well as to respond to the call of Jesus to love another.
A causal study on the ethical behavior of college of business students at De La Salle Universiy-- Manila by
Call Number: TU13264
Publication Date: 2010
Business expansion brings forth more problems in the midst of conflicting interests among different parties. People tend to decide on matters depending on their ethical behavior and reasoning. This research aims to evaluate the business ethics readiness of graduating students in De La Salle University Manila (DLSU) before they enter the business world. The study considered factors affecting business ethics including demographic factors, religiosity, work experience, education, observance of rules. This paper seeks to prove that the aforementioned factors have implications on the variance of the level of business ethics that these business majors have. It was found that the course Legal Management, perceived personal religiosity and observance of rules explained significantly the variance in ethical behavior. As a support for the findings in the regression analysis, significant differences in ethical behavior were also found among all the independent variables once the individual questions were analyzed. This study was done using survey questionnaires answered by graduating De La Salle University (DLSU) students in the College of Business (COB).
The Presence of the Peaceable Kingdom: Shaping Christian Social Ethics from Jacques Ellul and Stanley Hauerwas
Publication Date: 2017
The need for holistic solutions to diverse problems presents the church with an opportunity for a social witness shaped by the gospel. As a step toward accomplishing this end, this dissertation aspires to establish a refreshed approach for understanding Christian social engagement as fundamental expressions of the character of God through the virtuous witness of the church. To begin, chapter 1 contains the introduction to the dissertation, beginning with a statement of the thesis, namely, the church embodies a prophetic social ethic in the world through presence, possibility, and place as expressions of the theological virtues of faith, hope, and love. Following the articulation of this thesis will be definitions of “faith,” “hope”, and “love.” A proper understanding of these terms is crucial to the dissertation, and each will be elaborated further as the project progresses. This chapter closes with an overview of the project by explaining research methodology and brief chapter summaries....
A quantitative and qualitative analysis identifying antecedents of work ethic beliefs and the relationship between work ethic beliefs and in-role and extra-role work behavior: New work ethic dimensions and scale introduced
Publication Date: 2010
This study developed a comprehensive instrument for assessing contemporary work ethic and used the instrument to investigate antecedents of the formation of work ethic beliefs. In addition, the study investigated whether work ethic beliefs correlated with in-role and extra-role job performance. The study reviewed the literature on work ethic beginning with Weber's (1904-05) construal of the Protestant Work Ethic as the underpinning of early capitalism. The review traced the evolution of the Protestant Work Ethic construct to its contemporary, secular formulations. At issue is whether the dimensions of work ethic identified by Weber 100 years ago remain relevant for understanding behaviors of workers in today's post-industrial workplaces. Theoretical hypotheses and exploratory research questions were tested with a multi-phased series of qualitative and quantitative analyses.
Stakeholder theory and value creation within corporate communication: Corporate LGBT inclusion and fairness through the lens of Rawls's theory of justice
Publication Date: 2016
This study examines four public corporations and their public policies, values, and statements regarding gay employees. The companies selected are Google, Cracker Barrel, Darden Restaurant, and Dish Network. Two advocacy groups guide the research criteria of corporate language of inclusion and exclusion towards gay employees. These two advocacy groups include the Human Rights Campaign as well as a coalition of 18 groups that embody traditional family values. A document record analysis and a comparative cross case analysis of these corporate records will review the study’s findings. Contributions of the study include a presentation of corporate positions that also delineate language of inclusiveness and exclusiveness towards gay employees. The researcher presents a theoretical expansion of the stakeholder theory’s value creation through modeling ethical rules within integrity-based ethics and compliance-based ethics . The researcher also posits how corporate communication adds to the theoretical lens of the stakeholder theory. An understanding of Rawls’s theory of justice is explored to include LGBT fairness . Rawls’s theory of justice along with the scholarship of the stakeholder theory’s ethical constructs may also provide guidance for the practitioner to advance meritocratic values of LGBT employees within corporate America. Lastly, the study demonstrates how corporate messages may be ...
Organizational Justice in the Proposal Development Industry: The Influence of Gender, Nationality, and Training on Business Ethics Perceptions and Job Satisfaction
Publication Date: 2020
This study examines business ethics and organizational justice perceptions among members of the Association for Proposal Management Professionals (APMP), the only organization offering certification to bid and proposal practitioners. The study analyzes the effects of gender, nationality, and ethics training on member perceptions of business conduct, proposal practices, workplace treatment, and job satisfaction. Data were gathered through an online cross-sectional survey offered to 7,351 APMP members in 40 countries in 2018; 1,254 responded (17.1%), producing 1,113 valid cases analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. The study adds a previously unstudied professional group to the literature on business ethics (Abend, 2013; Baumhart, 1961; Byrne & Cropanzano, 2001; De George, 1987, 2005; Donaldson et al., 1994; Hunt & Vitell, 1986; McClaren, 2013) and on organizational justice (Adams, 1963; Bies & Moag, 1986; Colquitt et al., 2001; Greenberg, 1987; Leventhal, 1980; Thibaut & Walker, 1975). This study may also contribute to literature on job satisfaction (Dube, Giuliano, & Leonard, 2019; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959; Locke, 1969, 1976; Lu & Gursoy, 2013; Valentine, 2019) and human resource management issues such as gender pay inequity and workplace bias and abuse (Blau & Kahn, 2017; Fortin, 2006; Goldin, 2006; Joshi, Son, & Roh, 2015). In ...
Ethical leadership, the fair process effects of organizational justice and financial performance
Publication Date: 2015
The research inquired if ethical leadership (EL) positively impacted financial performance (FP) and if this relationship was mediated by the fairness effects of organizational justice . The organizational constructs that we examined were distributive justice , procedural justice and interactional justice . The research led to us proposing 12 hypotheses using correlations, t-tests, and logistic regressions. In our tests of mediation we drew on Preacher and Hayes (2008) multiple mediation strategy and tested by logistic regression and bootstrapping for indirect effects. Our results confirmed that there was a positive relation between ethical leadership and financial performance where there were significant mediating indirect effects from organizational justice constructs. The research was designed around two quantitative studies drawn from CEOs and employees of 40 credit unions in Jamaica. The first study reported a sample of CEOs (n = 27) and employees (n = 155) and the second study of employees only (n = 56). The study extended the landmark research in ethical leadership (Treviño et al., 2003) and (Treviño et al., 2000), as ethical leadership was tested in 10 of 12 hypotheses proposed. While much work has been taking place on the relation between Social Performance (SP) and Financial Performance (FP) over ...
Google books as infrastructure of in/justice: Towards a sociotechnical account of Rawlsian justice, information, and technology
Publication Date: 2014
The Google Books project is germane for examining underappreciated dimensions of social justice and access to information from a Rawlsian perspective. To date, however, the standard account of Rawls as applied to information and technology has focused almost exclusively on rights to access and information as a primary good (Drahos 1996; van den Hoven and Rooksby 2008; Duff 2011). In this dissertation, the author develops an alternative to the standard account—the sociotechnical account—that draws on underappreciated resources available within discussions of Rawls' work. Specifically, the author focuses on the importance of Rawls' basic structure argument and the value of self-respect—two ideas that figure prominently in Rawls' theory and have been discussed extensively by its critics. After developing this alternative account, the author undertakes a disclosive ethical analysis of Google Books from a social justice perspective. As a method, disclosive ethics is concerned with identifying morally opaque features of artifacts and systems. Following Brey (2000; 2010), the analysis proceeds along three levels: theoretical, disclosure, and application. At the theoretical level , extant Rawlsian applications are scrutinized and rearticulated in light of advanced informational and technological practices. At the disclosure level , morally opaque dimensions of Google Books are disclosed as relevant ...
Is Justice Gendered? Reactions to Men's and Women's Fairness Violations
Publication Date: 2012
Research has shown that gender role prescriptions can bias reactions to men's and women's work behaviors. The current dissertation draws upon this idea and extends it to consider violations of distributive and procedural justice rules. I propose that some of the criteria for justice necessitate gender stereotypic behavior and that violations of justice that also entail violations of gender norms are the ones that are met with the most social disapproval. These ideas were tested through four experimental studies. The results suggest that men and women receive differential performance evaluation ratings and reward recommendations when they violate justice norms that coincide with the content of gender stereotypes. Specifically, men were evaluated more negatively than women when they allocated resources equally, but not equitably (Study 1). In addition, women were rated less favorably than men when they exhibited poor interpersonal treatment (Study 2), but not when they behaved in a biased way during the decision-making process (Study 3). Findings also indicate that treatment-related misbehaviors, but not decision-making misbehaviors, are deemed less acceptable for female managers than male managers (Study 4). Overall, the findings suggest that reactions to injustice can be influenced by expectations of how men and women should behave.
Reconsidering Rawls: The Rousseauian and Hegelian Heritage of Justice as Fairness
Publication Date: 2013
This dissertation is an attempt to better understand the moral and political thought of John Rawls. I begin by calling into question the conventional, though misleading, image of Rawls as a thoroughgoing Kantian. While the influence of Kant upon Rawls is undeniable and therefore well documented, there are important theoretical differences between them, and these differences open up the necessary interpretive space for the under-appreciated influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and G.W.F. Hegel. That neither Rousseau—a theorist of recognition —nor Hegel—a theorist of reconciliation —is regarded as an important influence on Rawls is a major oversight in the history of political thought – an oversight that my dissertation hopes to amend. But there is more at stake here than the addition of a new chapter in the history of political philosophy: when we expose the full extent of the Rousseauian and Hegelian heritage of justice as fairness (and later, political liberalism), we get a more complete, nuanced—and, in my view, a more attractive—image of the moral and political philosophy of Rawls. This new, richer image of Rawls’s political philosophy is captured by what I call “robust reasonableness” : what Rawls offers, in the end, is a more conspicuously demanding account of ...
The Best Results Argument for Democracy
Publication Date: 2015
This dissertation examines the foundations of democratic legitimacy. That is, what should be the reason for us to believe that democracy is legitimate? The traditional answer, held from Aristotle to Mill, is that democracy produces the best results. Many modern theorists object to this consequentialist reason for democratic legitimacy. They argue that democracy cannot produce the best outcome. More importantly, according to them, a polity justified consequentially cannot be legitimate. To follow the consequentialist logic, objectors maintain, even slavery should be legitimate if it benefits slaves. Democracy, when justified consequentially, then would be a morally ambiguous polity. To the objectors, democracy is unique since its procedure is fair and this should be the reason for democratic legitimacy. Objectors disagree among themselves how fair procedure founds democratic legitimacy. This dissertation aims to show that all the objectors are wrong. It argues that procedural fairness can legitimatize a morally wrong coin-toss government. When two people are dying, one for the reason of hunger and the other for the reason of boredom, tossing a coin to decide who should be saved is morally wrong. The morally correct procedure must be the one that produces fair outcome. In light of the reason for the ...
John Rawls, Political Justice, and the Problem of Universality and Particularity
Publication Date: 2015
John Rawls is widely regarded by both critics and defenders as the most important political philosopher of the latter half of the twentieth century. Philosophers since at least the time of Plato and Aristotle have wrestled with the problem of the relationship between the universal and the particular. Astonishingly, no scholar has seriously investigated either Rawls’s understanding of the relationship between universality and particularity or how his view of this connection affects his justification for liberal democracy. This dissertation fills this glaring void. It attempts to answer two primary research questions. The first concerns what Rawls’s political philosophy implies about the relationship between universality and particularity, and the second pertains to how this implicit view influences his defense of liberal democracy. This dissertation applies a traditional hermeneutical method of textual analysis to all of the writings of Rawls that are relevant to answering these two questions.
Throughout his voluminous works, Rawls attempts to insulate his conception of justice from the influence of historical circumstances. Rawls admits that the three fundamental ideas of justice as fairness —the conception of the person, the idea of a well-ordered society, and the idea of society as a fair system of cooperation—are ideals that do ...
Natural Law and History: The Use and Abuse of Practical Reason
Publication Date: 2015
The new natural law theory of John Finnis and others is an ambitious but flawed reinterpretation of the natural law tradition. It dispenses with ontological or teleological commitments, appealing instead to practical reason and self-evident first principles directing one toward basic human goods as starting points for moral reflection. The new natural lawyers claim that their methods yield absolute moral norms that must never be violated, but these norms produce legalistic casuistry and undermine personal moral responsibility.
Among the alternative approaches to natural law theorizing that help rectify these difficulties is the work of Jean Porter, whose interpretation of Aquinas deemphasizes natural law as a means of deriving specific universal moral principles, instead viewing the natural law as a capability for moral reflection. The work of Alasdair MacIntyre, who argues that truth emerges from within traditions, not as a universally accessible set of principles, is also valuable for this project.
Such considerations direct one to Hans-Georg Gadamer, who provided an understanding of truth that is neither relativistic nor scientistic. Rather than viewing human contingency and finitude as obstacles to be overcome in the quest for truth, he regarded them as the conditions in which truth may be known. Although it ...